In this lesson you’ll learn:
- the first basic Italian phrases (What's your name? Where are you from? How old are you?);
- subject pronouns, that represent the person who speaks (first person), the one who is listening (second person), or the person, animal or thing you are speaking about (third person);
- the third person ‘lei’ as a formal pronoun;
- the gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) of nouns;
- definite articles;
- adjectives ending in -o and in -e;
- verbs to be and to have;
- there is, there are (CI with verb to be);
- family nouns;
All Italian verbs are either “regular” or “irregular.” In this lesson we will look at the regular verbs. There are three categories of verbs: -are verbs, -ere verbs, -ire verbs.
All three categories are infinitives, the base form of the verb. To conjugate a verb drop the infinitive ending (are, ere, ire) and add the ending corresponding to the tense you want to use.
We use simple present to express events that happen in the present or in the future, general habits and facts that are always true.
Quantifiers (adverbs, pronouns, adjectives): molto, abbastanza, poco, nulla, niente, troppo, quasi …
Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives: questo and quello
Possessive pronouns and adjectives: mio, tuo, suo, nostro, vostro, loro
Dare, dire, andare, fare, venire, stare, uscire
Present progressive: stare + gerund
Volere, dovere, potere, sapere
Difference between conoscere and sapere
The polite form (dare del lei)
Chi, che cosa, dove, quando, perché, come, quanto, quale
What time is it?
Articles are used before a noun.
The definite article is used before a specific or previously mentioned noun, but also when referring to general concepts.
The indefinite article is used before a noun to define it as something generic.
The partitive article is placed before an uncountable noun or to introduce an unknown amount.
The positive degree denotes the quality without comparisons. The comparative degree makes a comparison between two persons, animals or things. The superlative degree indicates that someone or something has the highest degree of a quality among a group or absolutely.
Reflexive pronouns are used as part of reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject is performing the action on himself or herself. We can also add these pronouns to verbs in order to make them reflexive.
Reflexive pronouns are also used as part of pronominal verbs to indicate a sort of emotional involvement in the action.
A direct object pronoun replaces a direct object.
An indirect object pronoun replaces an indirect object.
In this lesson, you’ll also learn how to use verb ‘piacere’ (like).
Give orders, offer advice or suggestions.
Past tenses express past events, habits, descriptions …
Talk about a time later than now, but also make predictions, promises, offers, requests and express doubts
Ask or give an advice, ask for a favor, talk about unconfirmed information, express wonder, surprise, joy, desire, say your opinion
In Chapter 1 of Level A, we saw CI with verb to be (there is, there are).
In Chapter 1 of Level B, we saw that CI is the first person plural direct or indirect object pronoun (us) and that LO and LA are the third person singular direct object pronouns (him, her, it).
In this lesson, we’ll see that:
- CI and NE can replace phrases introduced by a preposition (non ci penso, non ne sono niente);
- partitive NE replaces a noun linked to a quantifier (quanti ne vuoi?);
- CI is used with LO or LA and verb to have (Hai il libro? Sì, ce l’ho);
- CI, NE, LO, LA are added to many verbs in order to obtain new meanings.
Relative dependent clause
Phonetic, pronunciation, orthography