Are you an absolute beginner?
Here is some important topics to navigate.
Subject pronouns represent the person who speaks (first person), the one who is listening (second person), or the person, animal or thing you are speaking about (third person). Learn more
|Pronomi soggetto||Subject pronouns|
|1st p. s.||io||I|
|2nd p. s.||tu||you|
The polite form
The second person singular pronoun ‘tu’ is used for informal treatment (friends, family, children, classmates).
The third person feminine singular pronoun ‘lei’ is used in the formal register, to refer to an older person or to people you don’t know and in any formal situation. Learn more
To introduce yourself or if someone introduce you to other people, in informal context you can simply say ‘ciao’ or your name, while shaking hands. Learn more
Direct object pronouns receives the verb’s action directly. Indirect object pronouns receives the verb’s action indirectly.
|Pronomi oggetto diretto||Direct object pronouns|
|1st p. s.||me||mi||me|
|2nd p. s.||te||ti||you|
|Pronomi oggetto indiretto||Indirect object pronouns|
|1st p. s.||a me||mi||to me|
|2nd p. s.||a te||ti||to you|
Nouns refer to people, places, animals, objects and concepts.
In Italian, all nouns have a gender (masculine or feminine) and a number (singular or plural).
|Nomi di persona||Nouns referring to people|
|singolare maschile||singular masculine|
|plurale maschile||plural masculine|
|singolare femminile||singular feminine|
|plurale femminile||plural feminine|
The definite article precedes a specific or previously mentioned noun, even when speaking in general or referring to general concepts.
In Italian the definite articles have more than one form, because they need to agree in number and gender with the nouns they are used with.
Moreover, they also change according to the first letter of the nouns.
|Articoli determinativi||Definite articles|
Conjugation means changing a verb to give some important information: who or what is performing the action (subject), when action is performed (tense) and how it is viewed or perceived by the speaker (mood). Learn more
Moods and Tenses
The mood of a verb tells us how the action is viewed or perceived by the speaker. It indicates whether something is a fact, wish, opinion, command, suggestion, request, hypothesis (imaginary situation), or uncertainty. The tense of a verb generally indicates when an action occurred. Learn more
A regular verb is conjugated by removing the infinitive ending and adding the endings for the corresponding subject. Learn more
|Indicativo presente||Present tense|
|Verbi regolari||Regular verbs|
|1st p. s.||io parlo||I speak|
|2nd p. s.||tu parli||I speak|
Irregular verbs do not follow a regular pattern of conjugation. Learn more
|Indicativo presente||Present tense|
|Verbi irregolari||Irregular verbs|
|1st p. s.||io sono||I’m|
|1st p. s.||io ho||I have|
|1st p. s.||io faccio||I do|
Modal verbs are followed by the infinitive of another verb. They indicate a modality of that verb: obligation, desire, ability, capability, permission, possibility, probability. Learn more
|Verbi modali||Modal verbs|
|Dovere||have to, must, should|
|Sapere||can, be able to|
Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns refer to objects or people that are either near or far away.
In Italian, adjectives and pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun they modify or replace.
A demonstrative adjective also changes according to the first letter of the noun it precedes: quel ragazzo, quello zaino.
|Aggettivi e pronomi dimostrativi||Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns|
Possessive adjectives and pronouns show who has a particular relationship (of possession, kinship, friendship, etc.) with what is expressed by the noun they replace or modify.
In Italian possessive adjectives and pronouns are represented by the same word, are preceded by the article and agree in gender and number not with the owner but with the noun they modify or replace: il suo gatto, la sua gatta.
|Aggettivi e pronomi possessivi||Possessive adjectives and pronouns|
|1st p. s. M||Mio||My | Mine|
|1st p. s. F||Mia||My | Mine|
Question words can be used to ask open questions about identity, place, time, reason, choice, etc.
Degree of Adjectives
Adjectives can identify a noun (quella casa) or express a quality (una grande casa) or can be linked to some type of verbs (la casa è grande).
In Italian, most adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify.
Adjectives of quality have three degrees that compare one thing to another.
The positive degree denotes the quality without comparisons.
The comparative degree makes a comparison between two persons, animals or things.
The superlative degree indicates that someone or something has the highest degree of a quality among a group or absolutely.
|Grado dell’aggettivo||Degree of adjectives|
|più veloce di||faster than|
|il più veloce|
Prepositions are used before a noun, a pronoun or a verb to indicate various kind of relations (e.g. spatial and temporal).
In Italian, there are primary (e.g. a, di, da) and secondary (e.g. sopra, sotto, dentro) prepositions, prepositions combined with definite articles (e.g. al, del, dal) and prepositional phrases (e.g. prima di, davanti a). Preposition usage follows some rules but it is also dictated by fixed expressions. Learn more
|da||from, since, to|
|su||on, over, about|
|tra, fra||between, among|
Conjunctions are used to connect words and sentences.
Coordinating conjunctions connect two words or two sentences.
Subordinating conjunctions introduce a subordinate clause.
Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place tell us where something happens. They answer the questions: where? from where?
|Avverbi di luogo||Adverbs of place|
Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time tell us when something happens. They answer the questions: when? how long?
|Avverbi di tempo||Adverbs of time|